简而言之

The Financing of Hudson Yards Is Worse Than Its Architecture

一份Citylab的报告称,哈德逊·亚兹利用一个有争议的投资者签证计划,偷走了哈莱姆的低收入社区的资金,该计划本应惠及贫困的城市地区。

The Vessel seen looming in the foreground of the Shed and it's attached luxury skyscraper (photo by author)

Development projects as large as Hudson Yards need to find their capital somewhere,but nobody expected the $20 billion superblock to skim $1.2 billion in public funds from impoverished areas through a legal loophole.星期五,Citylab reportedthat the affluent neighborhood acquired this money through the EB-5 visa program,旨在帮助缓解城市贫困。

最初是为了支持贫困的农村和城市地区,the American government provides EB-5 visas to wealthy immigrants who invest anywhere between $500,000 to $1 million in American real estate projects.According to Citylab's Kriston Capps,对于想要为家庭金博宝首页成员办理签证的中国人来说,这是一条很受欢迎的途径。Those who buy EB-5 visas at the lower rate must put their money behind projects in areas with high unemployment.

And despite Hudson Yards's status as the most expensive real estate project in American history,it qualified as what public officials call a targeted employment area (TEA) eligible for financing due to a certain unemployment threshold 150 percent of national unemployment.

Empire State Development,纽约州政府经济发展局,确定合格茶的界限。(国家机构also worked on皇后区失败的亚马逊HQ2项目,据估计,这将从30亿美元的公共投资中受益。)创造出capps所说的“创造性金融惩罚”,帝国国家发展部绘制了一系列人口普查图,将哈林区的贫困地区与哈德逊庭院连接起来。

茶弯过市中心,穿过中央公园向哈林区走去。The Hudson Yards district casts a wide enough net to include public housing projects that give its overall unemployment statistics a boost.这张地图有一些明显的问题,包括当没有人居住在中央公园时,官员们如何将其归类为经济困境。Critics have also noted that the project funnels funds away from low-income communities in Harlem nearly 100 blocks downtown to Hudson Yards.

Not that every aspect of the deal manipulated the EB-5 visa protocol.Gary Friedland,一位居住在纽约大学斯特恩房地产金融研究中心的学者,told Citylab over email that "the first capital raise — for the platform that serves as the base for the buildings in the first phase of [Hudson Yards] over the eastern railyard — was an excellent use of EB-5 capital." He continued: "This funding of horizontal infrastructure at the beginning of a multiphase,long-term real-estate development project requires patient capital,since the project will not generate cash flow to support debt service payments on the mortgage until after the vertical buildings are completed and occupied.这种类型的资本不容易从许多传统来源获得。”

But Friedland points out that inexpensive EB-5 capital for the funding of skyscrapers on the suberblock merely enhanced the returns of Related Companies,the developer behind Hudson Yards,which would have been available from other streams of capital.

Critically,the government caps EB-5 visas at 10,000;Related solicited investments from nearly 3,200 foreign visa-seekers.这是相当大一部分资金,用于在经济困难地区进行分配。

As New York reckons with its new neighborhood for the mega-rich,公众很可能不得不面对更多关于哈德逊·亚兹如何找到财政基础的令人不快的轶事。Use of EB-5 visa program for gains at the cost of the city's needy populations demonstrates how developers and government officials were willing to take from the poor and give to the rich.

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