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糖精表演,深度保守主义赞助的诱人贺卡画

William-Adolphe Bouguereau's Belle Epoque paintings suggest that anything can be bought as a balm against the harsh conditions and human expense required to build America.

William-Adolphe Bouguereau,"Orestes Pursued by the Furies" (1862) oil on canvas,91 x 109 5/8 (all photos by the author for 金博宝188Hyperallergic)

密尔沃基-被法国学术画家的画作包围威廉·阿道夫·布格罗(1825–1905) is like being in the live butterfly room of a natural history museum.飘动的小天使和皮肤乳白色的年轻农家女孩竞相吸引注意力,pantomiming seduction.Every sightline,然而,poses a mildly disturbing question: Are the children in these paintings simply "cute" or are they provocative?就在人们开始怀疑布格罗是否将儿童色情作品编造成像贺卡这样的良性事物时,我们可以通过文本面板确信,他爱这些年轻的农民,只想让他们有尊严。

Today trying to determine how to view Bouguereau's paintings — at once beautiful like orchids and frivolous like cotton candy — versus seeing them displayed in the walnut-paneled sitting rooms of Victorian robber barons (where they originally were displayed) presents a challenge.有一件事是肯定的:布格罗那令人愉悦的画作太甜了,丝一样的,法兰西知识分子的矫揉造作终于产生了现代主义。艺术家古斯塔夫·库尔贝和作家查尔斯·波德莱尔宣称,在后革命时期的法国,art must do more than feed博恩茨to the bourgeoisie.Art must be urban,特遣队,真实的。

William-Adolphe Bouguereau,"Little Beggar" (1880) oil on canvas,46 x 90 1/8英寸

Unlike his fellow radical artists of the late-19th century,布格雷欧并没有随时代而改变。当他在法国过时的时候,他在美国兜售他的商品。The hordes of newly minted industrialists couldn't get enough of his perfectly glazed sprites.一个新的展览金博宝188app,共同策划密尔沃基艺术博物馆,威斯康星以及孟菲斯布鲁克斯艺术博物馆,Tennessee,只关注布格雷欧在美国的受欢迎程度。金博宝首页追寻40幅油画的起源,展览追踪金博宝188app了新古典主义绘画的兴衰,以及它在世纪之交反映资本主义价值观方面的作用。

The largest sponsor of the 金博宝188appexhibition is the staunchly conservative Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation,the nation's foremost funder of conservative thinkers and foundations.The Bradley Foundation,价值9亿美元,支持“非营利组织,除此之外,hostile to labor unions,对气候变化持怀疑态度,或对美国文化中性习俗的放松持批评态度。密尔沃基哨兵报.基金会的艺术资助倾向于倾向于主要机构而不是削减边缘艺术家。In this respect you can hardly do better than Bouguereau and the values imbedded in his art — idealism,whiteness,an effete notion of taste. The invention,显示,and ownership of perfect,bloodless female bodies also aligns nicely with基金会资助反对女权主义的团体以及带薪病假等政策。Bouguereau's depictions of women assure his paintings' owners that purely seductive service via the tasteful distance of vague mythological reference can and should be purchased,框架,and admired like a corporate logo.

William-Adolphe Bouguereau,“破罐”(1891)画布油画,53×33英寸。

While this 金博宝188appexhibition examines those who purchased Bouguereau's work in the US to illuminate the intertwining of art,商业,以及社会条件,现在,当代艺术界越来越多地要求谁资助我们的博物馆,以检查赞助的隐藏力量。博物馆应该从任何人那里拿钱吗?Does sponsorship affect content?惠特尼博物馆最近的抗议活动挑战了沃伦B的位置。坎德斯惠特尼董事会副主席,谁的公司负责制造最近在美国和墨西哥边境向移民发射的催泪瓦斯?上个月,伦敦国家肖像画廊拒绝了萨克勒家族130万美元的承诺,因为它与普渡制药公司有联系。有争议的止痛药oxycontin的制造者。英国艺术机构泰特集团古根海姆也跟着走了。

在布格雷的扩大形式术语中,one cannot escape the vestiges of a conservative political ideology,使观众参与到绘画的伴随价值中。当我们对布格雷的完美技巧惊叹不已时,我们也可能会退缩,感觉到一个历史性的时刻,当时艺术已经完全屈服于商业,我们所看到的都是空壳,几个世纪学术史绘画中被丢弃的外壳

展览安装图金博宝188app 布格罗和美国在密尔沃基艺术博物馆

The 金博宝188appexhibition's catalog posits that America's nouveau riche were mostly self-made men who wanted "to know they are getting their money's worth by buying a Bouguereau." The simple narratives of the paintings (beggar girl with hand out) as well as the skill in rendering equated with monetary value.1860年至1890年期间,布格雷欧在美国的工作最初以高价支付,随后的几十年里市场暴跌。只有另外两个主要的布格罗展览:一个是1974年的纽约文化中心1984年,共同提出蒙特利尔美术博物馆以及小帕莱宫,巴黎。今天,美国博物馆收藏了大约110幅布格雷欧油画。这次展览金博宝188app有趣地描绘了互动式iPad上每幅画的销售历史和位置的变化。

这些画中的许多花了一个世纪的时间在全国纵横交错,from one drawing room to another.

布格罗在做奢侈品生意的时候,an experimental tirade of art movements unfurled.现实主义,Impressionism,后印象主义都是为了应对工业化和共和国的诞生而产生的。Bouguereau's idylls left those social ripples behind.视觉愉悦一直在艺术世界中扮演着重要角色(例如17世纪的荷兰静物画)。然而,要完全融入布格雷欧的崇高是很困难的。Pre-pubescent girls appear too "come hither," the Venuses and Cupids too contemporary — even the babies pose seductively.这些画是关于欲望的。它们是贝尔时代的标志,表明任何东西都可以作为一种止痛药买到,以抵御建设美国所需的恶劣条件和人力成本。

William-Adolphe Bouguereau,“仙女和萨蒂尔”(1873)画布油画,102 1/2 x 75英寸

展览按主金博宝188app题分类:肖像画,神话,宗教,genre paintings,以及感性的主题。伟大的《仙女与色狼》(1873年)presents eight and one-half feet of whirling drama.四个面色苍白的女奴哄骗着,把一个带帽胡须的萨蒂尔拉到一个池塘里淹死。布格罗受到意大利文艺复兴时期画家拉斐尔的影响,但他的许多作品都显得矫揉造作(维罗内塞,Parmigianino布朗奇诺)带着上升的舰队,手臂和手的连锁格子。此时,17万英里的铁路正在美国各地修建,in the harshest work conditions.This painting rested in the hotel bar of the Hoffman House in New York.老板Edward Stiles Stokes拥有一家炼油厂,在谋杀了他的商业伙伴后被监禁。部分由三角恋引发。Like many of Bouguereau's works,the painting entered broader commercial channels via prints and products such as reproductions on cigar boxes.

更早的,女人嘲弄男人的类似主题,“俄瑞斯忒斯被毛皮追逐,”(1862年)posits three Furies and the dead body of Orestes's mother violently enveloping the insane protagonist.1863年首次在巴黎沙龙展出,one reviewer called it an "outmoded phantasmagoria." It later found its way into the collection of Walter P.小克莱斯勒,after the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts deaccessioned it.This is certainly Bouguereau at his best and worst: theatrical drama;一个紧密相连的,拉紧组成;非自然照明;无缝油漆处理;过度粗暴的表达;and pale elegance.

布格罗的风俗画在美国表现特别好,especially his portraits of children.在目录文章中,玛莎霍平试图向美国买家解释这个主题的吸引力。这些美丽的乞丐女孩的“优雅的哀伤”,she says,也许这让公众感到安心,“担心越来越多的在街头工作的贫困移民儿童对社会稳定构成威胁。”她后来认为,意大利有魅力的农民儿童提出了基督教慈善的理想。Part of the appeal in a work such as "Little Beggar," (1880),是女孩们的感官美。The little beggar,深色长发,坐在山景的石阶上。Barefoot,需要时伸出一只手,她直视着观众没有污染的流浪汉。Perhaps the combination of her availability and vulnerability was appealing to wealthy American males.

农家女与“年轻的牧羊女”(1885年)一起步入青春期。赤脚在农田里,向观众撒娇。By 1891,信息变得更清楚了。“破水罐”是一个漂亮的农家女孩坐在井边,旁边有一个破水罐,历史上是失去童贞的象征。

展览安装图金博宝188app 布格罗和美国在密尔沃基艺术博物馆

到1905年布格罗去世时,他已经积累了600多万法郎。他成了一个行业,大量的画架画找到了杂志的途径,产品标签和大众通过石版画。在他的时间里,he was considered the antithesis of progressive art movements.他的工作仍然不属于舒适的范畴,remaining a gelatinous melange of kitsch,学术水平,以及令人讨厌的感官享受。布格罗的作品是一件异常平淡的美国文化艺术品,代表了新世界对精致装饰的渴望,一旦它的意义或内容被净化。When art endures,it is because it refracts enduring human conditions.One can say that Bouguereau's work has ridden the jet stream of a very enduring universal trait called greed.

布格罗和美国continues at the密尔瓦基艺术博物馆(700 N)。密尔沃基艺术博物馆大道,wi)至5月12日,在孟菲斯布鲁克斯艺术博物馆(1934年白杨大道,孟菲斯tn)6月22日至9月22日。它由斯坦顿·托马斯和塔尼亚·保罗主持。

意见(