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1. Jean‐Michel Basquiat “Hollywood Africans” (1983) acrylic and oil stick on canvas; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Gift of Douglas S. Cramer; Digital Image © Whitney Museum of American Art / licensed by Scala / licensed by Art Resource. (© Estate of Jean-Michel Basquiat; licensed by Artestar, New York; courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)


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Nowadays if we need to make the artists of the first hip-hop generation relatable to the public we can simply introduce them as prophetic avatars of hip-hop and Afrofuturism — two once outlier subcultures that now possess globalized street cred and multibillion-dollar market value. Such attributes were nonexistent when the creative tyros represented here were all in their roaring 20s in 1980s Gotham City.

Citing our cohort’s prescient contributions to hip-hop and Afrofuturism cuts to the chase, eliminates the need for verbose explanations about cultural context, particularly in light of hip-hop’s three-decade omnipresence in global youth culture. There are, after all, indigenous hip-hop scenes spanning all of Europe and Asia and all fifty-four nation-states on the African continent. And by hip-hop we mean not just rapping but the other four internally defined elements of the culture: writing (“graffiti,” “subway art,” “bombing”), turntabling, rapping, break dancing, beatboxing, and b-boying — the latter of which encompasses all things having to do with hip-hop style, fashion, swagger, postural semantics (“profiling”), and generally all that badass streetwise gangsta attitude andDUENDE诗人顿萨克·尚杰一旦确定为我们的冠军的“轻松性能力”。

Afrofuturism (aka Black Science Fiction) leaped onto the zeitgeist’s bandwagon via the billion-dollar box-office take of Marvel and Disney’s 2018 filmBlack Panther。隔夜有关超能力非洲人争夺现代君主制/母系社会对人类的母亲大陆灵魂的史诗大片 - 一个文化更加技术上和军事上比美国先进的 - 成为Afrofuturism的缩略图草图和现成的画图猜词游戏图形。

The visionary 1980s vintage artworks by our selectively assembled cast —A-One, Basquiat, ERO, Fab 5 Freddy, Futura, Keith Haring, Kool Koor, LA2, Lady Pink, Lee Quiñones, Rammellzee, Toxic — visually presaged the impact that hip-hop and Afrofuturism’s pictographic and phonographic Blackness is having on The Now.

This cohort was making work as young adults that projected a hip-hop–Afrofuturist imaginary onto the extremely Eurocentric gallery system’s white- cube walls — elitist and racially discriminating places not known back then for their open embrace of avatars, aesthetics, and imagineering that hailed from the hood.

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比他们的同事优,巴斯奎特,厂5,和拉梅尔齐更因此引发了现代艺术的新闻,策展,学术守门的单作公开对抗。They came bearing (and baring) mad backup from the grassroots: they drew — literally and figuratively — on the prime directive among the subway writers to “bomb all lines” — meaning not only to target every car running the tracks of the Big Apple’s number-and color-coded system, but also to intellectually blow up the established art-world order with cantankerous metaphorical, mystical, and metaphysical content and savvy. To bomb all the lines that ran beyond the literal train system meant detonating the linear thought-constructs of Western art legitimacy.





写作,因为它是如此事无巨细公众,是第一个嘻哈的元素,冲进国际化意识。铺设声称是世界上最大的展览场地 - MTA的苹果蜿蜒火车线路 - 地铁金博宝188app作家的作品变得像光学和最佳无所不在的曼哈顿天际线。作家的肆无忌惮的能量和他们的艰巨疯狂的热情,杂技工作持续了十几年的与MTA战斗的运动。他们在地下壁画冒险在凌晨地下的推移,与可怕的危险出没的隧道和rail-码:大鼠,警犬,纽约市警察局的防涂鸦阵容,坑洼,五十英尺下降,高电压的第三轨。

被当局判定和指责as vandals who defaced city property may have added to the anarchic and romantic appeal of the endeavor for the adolescent writers. Suddenly Gotham’s most disenfranchised, harassed, over-policed, and invisibilized citizenry — its wise-assed tactical bombing youth — were impossible to ignore or to stop from dropping their wildstyle bombs on all lines. On a daily basis, the MTA dutifully and disparagingly painted over their spectacular ten-car pieces — a jack move that ironically served to provide the writers with a metropolis full of fresh canvases, ensuring the next detonation of stoopid-fresh mobile murals would roll out of the yards the morning after.

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The galvanized young subway writers shared neighborhoods, communities, and recreational rooms with peers whose talents also encompassed break dancing, DJ-ing, and rapping. Early hip-hop culture set the precedent for them to freely engage and entertain their own multidisciplinary desires and muses. They rearticulated, reformulated, and transfigured the high-handed cultural mission they’d inherited from the bombing practices of the writers. They also brought well-articulated radical-oppositional intentions and theory to the table. As Miles Davis did, they used their racial alienation and sense of ethnic difference from the white world as ideological and ideographic rocket fuel.

巴斯奎特的大揭秘来到在他著名的要求,他的主要动机作为一个艺术家是使精神供奉到的个人三连胜“皇室,英雄主义和街道。”As eagerly as some may attempt to align Basquiat’s practice solely with his museum favorites — Picasso, Warhol, De Kooning, Dubuffet, and Franz Kline (all per JMB’s own misdirection) — it’s clear that being a Do or Die Brooklynite of Puerto Rican and Haitian parentage also majorly informed his painterly bent.

艺术家的父亲,杰拉德·巴斯奎特,打蜡丰富的他认为,巴斯奎特的感性在他吐温年主场进行进化:“很多意象,我觉得,是布鲁克林出生。让 - 米歇尔的房间在楼上的建筑,我们住在后面,所以从他的窗口,他可以看到一个梦幻般的天际线,和伟大的建筑,如BAM [布鲁克林音乐学院]附近的银行。我认为这是他在早期绘画引用的天际线。孩子们玩游戏的Boerum山的人行道也是灵感的来源清晰。然后当然还有平底鞋修复,在布鲁克林第四大街的F-L-A-T-S F-I-X的迹象。这是他记得很清楚,并从中提取多重意义的事情之一。”

Basquiat grew up privy to the carnivalesque glories provided his impressionable young eyes by Brooklyn’s annual West Indian Day Parade — a daylong pan-ethnic procession of lavishly decorated floats, glittering spangled flesh-baring costumes, Calypso-booming sound trucks, and characters who costumed themselves as hellish Haitian Vodou deities like Baron Samedi and Damballah.


我们知道,巴斯奎特的波多黎各母亲马蒂尔德Andrades经常带着她容光焕发的孩子让 - 米歇尔·城市博物馆,但我们不应该低估市镇的街道和零售门面对年轻艺术家的影响。JMB的视觉感受力和布鲁克林的萨泰里阿和Vodou神物和祭坛之间的共振扩大了我们自己的现代艺术博物馆以外的范围视觉库的理解。

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的高度表现黑色男性化附图中的重复是在巴斯奎特典专题恒定。器重他对爵士音乐家是显而易见的:查理帕克,吉莱斯皮,勒尼斯·蒙克,马克斯·罗奇等比波普国王totemically复发的黑人男子的天才现成的巨头 - 男人fame-,reward-和尊重-obsessed巴斯奎特知道了自己的创作实力,国际化的风格,和街头信誉在全世界尊敬。

橄榄球,棒球和篮球的美国大联盟运动成为完全集成在巴斯奎特的一生。但是,如果有人想看到大众媒体黑人在20世纪50年代,60年代,70年代和谁不是白人处理器的木偶,然后用爵士音乐家一起,义和团你最好的选择。杰拉德·巴斯奎特回忆他和他的儿子的“甜蜜科学”的共同享受:“我是拳击的大风扇,当他还是个孩子,会有每个星期五在电视上打架。我们会坐在一起观看。他谈到了乔·路易斯,杰西·乔·沃尔科特,所有的人 - 过去几年的伟大的拳击手“。

巴斯奎特著名的模拟回合海报兜售他和安迪·沃霍尔之间的战斗显得扑朔迷离反映了这种固定。有很多巴斯奎特书画名家积极退场肆虐在胜利的拳头抬起黑色男性形象的描写 - 足以配得上自己的主题展览组织。金博宝188app其中的一些激进数字突变机器人杂交的产物,这进一步强调了JMB的Afrofuturism与富利的机器人,厂5 Freddy的空间神,哈林的外星人和animalisms,和拉梅尔齐的烟火和战斗准备声音西服的对准。

拉梅尔齐“加什邻利尔”(1989)的混合介质;拉梅尔齐的地产;©2018拉梅尔齐村。在卡梅拉Zagari拉梅尔齐(相片的存储器:兰斯布鲁尔;的展观看金博宝188app拉梅尔齐:赛车迅雷(courtesy Red Bull Arts New York; courtesy, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)

Basquiat’s oeuvre can now be said — in the wake of his postmortem victory lap and boot stomp on the Euro-American art world — to constitute a Black male wall of fame, one exploding with markers of the fraught conquests, Pyrrhic victories, and traumatic vicissitudes of Black male being-and-nothingness in America. His work also tacitly and intentionally addresses the imbalance between Black culture’s monumental impact on Western modernity and the general disrespect shown Black folk by the nation’s policing and legislative institutions.


When Basquiat broke out in the early 1980s, there were no other Black painters considered worthy of blue-chip gallery recognition. A century of Black artists before Basquiat had made momentary waves in the Euro-American art world, but there’d never been a barely twenty-one-year-old Black visual artist who’d royally shook up Soho’s cock-blocking gallery-owning doyennes by showing up with the superstar jouissance of a Jimi Hendrix. The rapid rise of Basquiat required an extraordinary set of preconditions, even for someone as adept at the art-game hustle as he was. Overcoming art-world racism in the way Basquiat did required removing major barriers to entry for anyone not white, middle-aged, and male.


The politics of punk owed everything to the Black and Brown folk of South London who were openly swinging their fists in the streets on ultra-right Thatcherite goons and brigades, those officially sanctioned by 10 Downing and their civilian bootlickers, in the immigrant communities they’d built up from working-class slums in the 1950s. Jamaica’s Bob Marley and the Wailers had made international pop gold out of lyrics that extolled shooting down sheriffs, preached the fall of capitalist Babylon, and professed that God was neither seated in heaven nor coming back as Jesus but instead was an Ethiopian king codenamed Rasta Far I who was still ruling and schooling on this Earth. Marley’s iconic locks and self-appointed grandeur inspired Basquiat to dread his follicles into the Medusan crown of chaos the art world read as primitive and unkempt rather than messianic, futurist, and regal.

该夜街,这些艺术家和其他在现在注册为无政府主义的自由表达的寒武纪大爆发了宴会,由一代从城市的利润率谁是他们每次走进下午的时间重新启动和freebooting时代精神hypercreative青少年的领导市区81,the film Basquiat made with his friend Glenn O’Brien, vividly captures how bold, brazen, and elegantly experimental that scene’s cutting-edge musicians like Kid Creole and Arto Lindsay were — ready for their close-up before the world even knew they existed.

嘻哈一代的成员在历史上第一位黑人音乐家借给自己的风采和冷静消费休闲产品品牌,成为亿万富翁。所有巴斯奎特的工作点是商品化交易嘻哈未来的版权符号和冠,即使嘻哈仍扣,这种认知时,巴斯奎特离开了人世。His own success turns out to have been the harbinger for hip-hop’s success and for the trickle-to-a-flood arrival of the Black visual art stars who would follow in Basquiat’s wake in the 1990s and early 2000s: Lorna Simpson, Gary Simmons, Glenn Ligon, Kara Walker, Kehinde Wiley, Mickalene Thomas, Wangechi Mutu.

太阳镭和乔治·克林顿预示着说唱的‘黄金时代’诗人的视觉智慧和深奥signifyin’。JMB和拉梅尔齐都特别嵌进语言骗术,这将成为1990年代早期街舞签名。他们1982年合作的记录Beat Bop设置如此多的沉思,拼贴画审美说唱来的基调。

在串联来看,嘻哈的第一家画廊的艺术家和主要唱片专辑的艺术家为我们提供Afrofuturist mythopoeic imaginaries,hoodwise幻想曲代表他们的辈分和区域矩阵过多。他们还建立涌现了,几乎十年前,从城市的社会经济利润率文化发电机的市场潜力 - 轴承贫困,犯罪和无政府状态的柱头。

拉梅尔齐arrives to us from the boondock wilds of New York’s boroughs: Far Rockaway, Queens, dog-end of the A train, another galaxy far, far away from Duke Ellington’s fabled Harlem-bound line. Rammellzee takes longer than Basquiat to suss out — his complete picture and pictorial legacy require more time and distance to evolve and convince.

巴斯奎特具有包含在每个人跳的惊喜的元素。他出现,开辟了射击,有斑纹的丰富压倒我们的感官上,似乎欠谁的情画布,但他自己 - 一个神童精通各种风格和主义,高与低,绘画和纸浆,古老的姿态穿刺未来,贾科梅蒂杰克柯比实习医生格蕾;更优雅比脚本托姆布雷,就像熵作为wildstyle和雾化的一切梅特和现代艺术博物馆举行,亲爱的,保持紧密的核防冻。

In contrast, what Ramm demonstrated off the top of his dome wasn’t a mastery of MoMA’s 2-D preference but a mastery of language and theory about a culture of painting that’d been incubating in caves beneath the big city for a decade — +one that had its own tradition and guild of classical masters, thank you. About that aspect of writing, Ramm wasn’t speaking as a distant observer but as an apprenticed, experienced member of his subterranean painting class: one who’d earned his keep and the respect of his elders, and one who had risen from outsider to central gangsta figure to his own self-sprung deity.

“我下来从皇后到布朗克斯,”他reminisced in 1985, “because that’s where the culture was coming from. All the guys who also rode the A Train — Phase Two, Peanut Two, Jester — all these guys influenced me in this manner of writing … If I’d been born in Brooklyn, I wouldn’t have come up with my style of Ikonoklast Panzerism. I would have been too close to too many masters” — especially Dondi, who became his mentor after a thorough interrogation. Once under Dondi’s wing, he was inducted into the legendary bombing crew known as UGA (United Graffiti Artists). “I was known as Stimulation Assassination: Tagmaster Killer. I owned the entire 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 lines.”

当我们在1983年发行的阅读编辑迪克与拉姆访谈(第一待出版)艺术论坛we encountered a sermon-cum-manifesto-cum- jeremiad that forced many a literate sapient to realize that this thing we’d been calling graffiti had produced a first-rate major organic intellectual — one whose theories don’t just affirm the deep, dark thought behind the nightly bombing of the trains but weaponize it, militarize it, historicize and futurize it as a calligraphic offshoot of the writing done by 16th-century Gothic monks: “The monks started what we do,” Ramm told DeAk. “We extend off their science. The bishops in 1582 stopped their knowledge because they couldn’t read the monks’ tax papers. They were getting too fancy so the bishops said ‘I can’t read this to tax the people’. [The monks] wrote it the way they wanted to write it, in their style. The calendar monks sent a letter to the one place God cannot go: Hell. The light we had draws from a knowledge that was dim down there, so the knowledge was very faint but yet it was real, and with its energy passing through our bodies, we received it.”




拉姆巧妙地连接在这里的文化和政治上的点,就像他的前辈公认的太阳镭和乔治·克林顿(灵感的邪恶阴谋集团的成员,拉姆所说的还包括AC / DC,KISS的吉恩·西蒙斯,以及地狱天使)。这样一来,他联系了作家下面露得越多的战斗上面社会民主和反黑停止暴力元战。


写作和恋爱帝国主义社会内部发展的轰炸与自己的火力和白人至上主义神话。拉姆认为写的战斗爆发出其被剥夺公民权的城市士兵被压抑的创意侵略 - 已经在压力下通过皮肤类,警方瞄准的力:“我们的符号可以被铠装,因为这种文化具有军事实力。恐怖主义的第一个行动是美国滴在广岛原子弹...。我们这一代人的贫穷和绝望让我们把一个字母变成了一枚导弹。”

所有这些关于jabber的坦克,导弹,装甲和字母可以有你想拉姆是因为神志不清约真正的战争是意大利的未来主义的新法西斯僚机菲利波·托马索·马里内蒂。其他意见露出了人文主义精神的背后潜伏着他的言语咆哮和修辞散弹枪 - 或后以人为本,也许是:

我们先进的科学和技术方面,但人口的态度仍然是哥特式。我们仍然不知道我们在做什么。我们仍然不知道如何离开这个星球的正确方法......。你可以有四种选择人性 - 种族灭绝;普通的旧社会主义像蜜蜂和蚂蚁有;爱情和专政,这就是我们现在所拥有;或者你可以有很多高功率的大型结构知识的地方,一切都变得不是社会主义蜜蜂型状态,但与巨型结构一个好战的国家。这就是事情应该是这样 - 大众的思维,质量脑力为一体。

Ramm believed that when writing jumped the tracks from the trainyards into the shady gallery system, it gained the world’s attention for fifteen minutes but lost its soul—not so much because the writers got pimped and disposed of by the galleries but because, except for himself and his cadre, writing culture discontinued the path of armoring the letter and establishing its own criteria for mastery, as jazz musicians had done. As he told the online grafzine@ 149街



这些都是神称为兰姆魔法Zee。每一个啊f them has a part to play in the mythology called Gothic Futurism. Some of them are from different time periods. The Purple People Eater over there is China, the Cosmic Bookie. We all gamble one way or the other. He places his bets with the Horrors, and the Horrors gamble galaxies. The Wielder is dealing with Chronologics. He spins around and deals with Ovulization. He has to deal with the bet called ‘Womb Versus Man’. What he does is calculate all movement in the universe, or as I call them, the transverses. Ovulization, or the cosmic flush, is the same thing as when a wombman has her period. Times burns out as a cosmic flush called “men o pause.” This is a trick made by the clergy: Man versus Womb Man.

Ramm is the first person to link the term Futurism to hip-hop practice. He goes even darker than the Afro in linking Gothic and Futurism together. In one fell swoop, Ramm gave graffiti writing theoretical gravitas. Rap music was not yet as verbally complex, vocally dexterous, or radically self-conscious as it would become by the late 1980s, making Ramm’s艺术论坛采访嘻哈来的预兆。直到我们听到敲打波普他自由泳的诗句做我们认识到,他的摆动流作为自由泳作词也可以执行预言。在他的押韵,他错误地蒙上提出了一个主要的唱片公司的名字 - Def Jam公司,一年的记录后形成的 - 和一个主要的嘻哈乐队,柏树山。

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What Basquiat and Ramm share is a mastery of improvisation — Basquiat graphically, Ramm verbally. Where they diverge is in Basquiat’s avowedly ravenous hunger for art-world fame and for his art to be unlinked to writing and the word “graffiti.” Fab 5 Freddy, Lady Pink, and Lee have all demanded similar respect for their post-graffiti work, but Ramm to his dying day never abandoned his belief that the wildstyle writing and letter-armoring of his hundreds of underground comrades was a higher calling than getting into the gallery system.

Jean-Michel Basquiat, front album cover of击败波普:拉梅尔齐对战K-罗布(Tartown记录公司)(1983)上涂覆的纸板与唱片纸标签上印刷的油墨的印刷油墨;速度:33 1/3转;拉里·沃尔什的收藏(让 - 米歇尔·巴斯奎特的©村;通过Artestar,纽约执照;礼貌,美术博物馆,波士顿)

Ironically, Basquiat’s later interviews display considerable anger towards the art world’s exploitation of his fame and his work. He raises the specter of exploitation, betrayal, and racism in his treatment by certain of his early dealers and gallerists, such as Annina Nosei and Mary Boone. Basquiat didn’t completely shake the “graffiti-artist” tag in纽约时报reporting until after his “Untitled Skull” sold at auction in 2017 for more than $110 million —more than any previous single painting by an American artist. In the纽约时报articles after the sale he is finally referred to as an artist first, before the reporters dredge up his biographical stigmata. As they say in the streets, “Money talks and bullshit walks.”

街舞是一种文化力,其早期从业者投身到一场激烈的,保护宗教狂热 - 不仅仅是因为它的核心介质多少爆发力提供他们的个人和部落讲真话,多少它放大了他们的“热潮真的。”多在视觉艺术的任何其他数字,巴斯奎特驾驭什么约鲁巴人称之为嘻哈axé- 由约鲁巴艺术和宗教学者罗伯特·法里斯·汤普森定义为“使事情发生的权力。”

因为巴斯奎特是如此他打算生产的画作,可以去脚趾到脚趾与他的最爱现代派图标中恶狠狠地清晰 - 毕加索,克莱恩,德库宁,托姆布雷,劳森伯格,沃霍尔 - 他飞速上升,从标签市中心墙壁蓝色片内画廊回想起来从地铁漫步起来,关苏豪城墙,在街对面。一名自称自学成才,巴斯奎特是很好的抽象和波普艺术画精通。与现代抽象的核心白话任何人都精通可以很容易地发现其对巴斯奎特最早的油画影响。他的空间组织模式,他的斑点和色彩的广场,是死的,屁股赠品,他想到他的油画在谈话中,他标志性的绘画引用。巴斯奎特预计将立即理解为西方抽象绘画的实践者,一个谁愿意留在这方面的空间不大歧义迈尔斯戴维斯留下任何怀疑,他的大都会建筑布鲁斯用抽象的真理饱和。

喜欢谁强加其时尚的严谨性和多重节奏泛非继承西方和谐beboppers,巴斯奎特强加他千变万化的视觉想像力图形发明的仓库是现代绘画史上留下他跑与横行。他对这些图形的发明的关系和部署是不是模仿而是动态的,巧妙的,反思,即兴的,神秘的,诗意的,多潜能 - 而恶和政治讽刺过。他的艺术也保持学术uncategorizable,以至于一个年轻的艺术史学家发现,她的同事们尚不能决定是否进行分类JMB作为一个黑人艺术家,海地艺术家,或者是欧洲的一个!


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The hip-hop generation’s visual artists — those who transitioned to canvas like our assembled cast here, and the hundreds of other subway writers who fervently established their own tradition of burner masterpieces — seem as a whole to have been less enamored of Picasso’s or any European master’s ennobling primitivism than was Basquiat, who came in swinging for the museum collection. But the collective’s shared debts, Basquiat included, to an American tradition of the fantastic, from popular music, underground comics, Peter Max, science fiction, horror films, and their own wildstyle calligraphic extrapolations, are evidence of an iconoclastic generational hive mind — self-empowering its muses by digging deeper into its urban bush-bejeweled interiors and casting forth works that defiantly represented its own funk-da-fied Afro-diasporic imaginaries and gully New York street experiences. With supreme self-confidence and vision this heroic street royalty chose the futurism of hip-hop over the academically sanctioned wall art of Old Europe and the trendy, mercantile-driven isms of the white-male-genius-privileging Soho gallery scene. This hive, this tribe of artful renegade creatives, foresaw in the 1980s post-graffiti moment that the future of art-making, art history, and post-modernity was theirs to pre-claim, define, terrify, tarbrush, and transcend — and baby, look at them now.

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