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当摄影师创造人格围绕佛朗哥将军邪教

像特鲁姆普,西班牙独裁者的外观是一个宏伟的统治者不是。他有一个团队谁学习宣传手段,并前往看海报,展览,和仪式的第一手资料。金博宝188app

未知的摄影师,随着冬季斗篷(1930年),虚拟国防Bahamonde案的库通用弗朗西斯科·佛朗哥的肖像(MUE-120279)(图片来源,并通过维基共享资源

At the College Art Association in February 2017 a colleague told me “This is your period.” Still in shock over the election results, I could not have anticipated how true his statement was. My book视觉宣传,展览和西班牙内战金博宝188app有四年前出版。对比双方的视觉文化和展览:民主选举产生的共和人民阵线联盟左派和金博宝188app凝聚周围的法西斯将军佛朗哥,在1936年7月18日政变的领导者之一的右翼民族主义联盟。金博宝首页贵族,大部分的天主教会和军方都起义的骨干力量。政变的一个重要理由是,1936年2月的民主选举是被操纵的。我不禁想到了我的西班牙语爷爷维森特巴西利奥贝尔弗和他的兄弟何塞,谁在他们的投票地点,以证明选举结果担任代表他们温和的左翼政党。寻找我的家人的信息,因为我知道我的祖父反对佛朗哥,位于他哥哥的监狱记录的档案战斗。有时期间或战争结束后,他在集中营(任期),那么监狱举行。当他被假释,条件是内部流放 - 他永远无法回到他出生的城市。在另一个档案,我发现他和我祖父对结果签了字的选举文件。他们的名字用红色下划线了。 I can only assume that my grand uncle was deemed a grave danger because of his commitment to his party and participation in the electoral process.

未知的摄影师,一般弗朗西斯科·佛朗哥的肖像(1966)(图片提供:维基共享资源

I spent years trying to understand how the Nationalists created a cult of personality around Franco, whose dictatorship ended with his death in 1975. Their effort to craft his image was buttressed by imagery and ceremonies of absolute monarchy and the military, including photography, print culture, and Catholic iconography. Like President Trump, Franco was familiar to wide audiences. The latter appeared in newspapers and magazines that celebrated his military exploits in the Spanish colonies in North Africa and his role in the brutal suppression of a miners’ uprising in 1934. Depicted astride a white horse in photos, postcards, and a painting, he resembled Spain’s patron Saint James, known as the “Moor slayer,” entwining religious fanaticism, racism, and anti-leftist political views. I remember trying to explain Trump’s fame to friends in Spain, a reality-show star staging a simulacrum of entrepreneurship and corporate prowess. Since he could bend and bully aspiring entrepreneurs to his will and demonstrate his mastery of business, years later, he could convince many that he could “run” the United States. Similarly, Franco could apply his brutal military tactics to crush what he called the godless, leftist, Bolshevik, Jewish, Masonic enemies and restore order. Psychiatrist Antonio Vallejo-Najera, an admirer of Hitler and promoter of eugenics, warned against the anti-Spanish leftists, bearers of the degenerate “red gene.” Such strategies to dehumanize ideological opponents are familiar to us now. As we have seen, Trump has leveraged deeply rooted racist and anti-Semitic tropes and promoted new versions of witch-hunt tactics directed at progressives.

从小册子“战争的图片:5军团,萨拉戈萨”页面(约1937),通过新闻宣传的军事代表团;通过Huecograbado艺术版画发表在毕尔巴鄂(笔者的收集,礼貌的作者)

像特朗普,佛朗哥的外观(身材矮小,肥胖,用高亢的声音)是一个宏伟的统治者不是。然而,最终的独裁者有一个团队的艺术家,作家,摄影师,电影制作人,等谁钦佩希特勒和墨索里尼。他们研究了他们的宣传方式,并前往看海报,展览,和仪式的第一手资料。金博宝188app画报杂志和报纸传播弗朗哥的盟友产生的宣传照片。在与西班牙的杂志进行了讨论,广告和宣传的理论化饲养,佛朗哥的宣传员试图创建独裁者的气势图像,严格控制所有图像。他们与JALON天使,他的用于增强电影明星的图像前卫的摄影技巧的掌握闻名的官方摄影师。A类品牌通过明信片,照片和海报分布的组织创建(这必须是在政府大楼,学校,监狱公众的视野,更多)摇尾乞怜的新闻文章和新闻片。渲染无处不在的,在一些图像,佛朗哥被拍到在看地图或在他的尸体被放置在地图西班牙的蒙太奇照片,体现了国家。该标语写着:“一个祖国,一个国家,一个军事领袖,”模仿希特勒的花言巧语。

Adolf Hitler delivers a speech at the Kroll Opera House to the men of the Reichstag on the subject of Roosevelt and the war in the Pacific (December 11, 1941) in Berlin (photographer unknown,图像礼貌维基百科

Today, we have an even less majestic image of the leader’s body embodying the nation in Trump’s ever-present red MAGA hat. His incessant tweets also further his all-pervasive persona, an updated version of Mao’s pronouncements in the Little Red Book or big-character posters and murals. Many Trump propagandists are now looking to past autocrats, studying the ways in which they consolidated their grasp on power, undermined democratic institutions, creating chaos, promoting hate and violence. Trump’s dramatic appearance at the Truman Balcony when he returned to the White House from Walter Reed Hospital led to #Mussolini as a trending topic on Twitter. Trump’s escalating nationalist and violent rhetoric, the administration’s propaganda, and his anti-democratic tactics are leading many to recover history, finding parallels between Mussolini’s appearances on balconies and pairing纳粹鹰符号withTrump’s “America First” eagle design. My colleague was right, my scholarship on fascist propaganda, which I assumed would be of interest to a limited audience, is now chillingly relevant.

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