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How Early US Propaganda Grew Out of a Society of Illustrators

如果法西斯主义的当代回声带来了20世纪30年代和40年代troublingly在脑海中,这是值得回顾的是现代的宣传成为第一次世界大战期间的全球性企业。

约瑟夫·彭内尔,“那自由,不得从地球上消亡 - 购买自由债券四自由女神贷款”(1918年),彭内尔使用一个简单的两色的调色板和夸张的到捕获可能导致失败打败德国什么修辞手法:纽约市笼罩在一片轩然大波,自由的在空中轰炸之下崩溃的危险雕像。自由女神的化身,体现在巴托尔迪的雕像(1886年),拴到林肯在葛底斯堡的话,包超过一拳“醒醒吧,美国!”乔迪和路易·阿特金家族收藏,D.B。多德现代图形的历史图书馆,华盛顿大学图书馆(由美国国会图书馆照片)。

直到最近,认真思考宣传had seemed like a subject at rest, tidily contained in reflections on the victory over fascism following World War Two. Since 2010, we have witnessed the worldwide resurgence of populism and white nationalism, especially in the United States. Toxic ideologies and rising authoritarianism are now widely understood as serious threats to liberal democracy. If the echoes of fascism have brought the 1930s and ‘40s troublingly to mind, it’s worth recalling that modern propaganda became a global enterprise during the First World War, rather than the second. For the US, that conflict was brief, lasting less than two years. But the ideological output was prodigious.

当美国国会宣布对德意志帝国政府战争在1917年4月,在伍德罗·威尔逊的催促迟迟进入第一次世界大战时,国家是措手不及,没有准备的冲突。除了缺乏军事准备的,一个分裂的公民需要扶正祛邪工作再上一个备战。宣传的操作就必须召集。不久,这项工作落到了乔治·克雷尔,谁承担公共信息,由威尔逊总统的行政命令4月13日在未来两年内形成一个独立的政府机构,对CPI的新委员会主席前洛基山新闻编辑器 -de facto宣传部门 - 会发芽许多“分裂”,或活动的领域,但很少将对手什么成为了海报店:画报宣传司。

Creel understood the propaganda role that posters could play, partly because combatant nations had been using them for years, since the outbreak of war in 1914. In the United States, Creel later wrote in我们如何播发美国(published in 1920), “The poster must play a great role in the fight for public opinion. The printed word might not be read; people might choose not to attend meetings or to watch motion pictures, but the billboard was something that caught even the most indifferent eye.”

The roots of Great War visual propaganda sprouted in the last decades of the 19th century, specifically in refinements to large format chromolithography and the development of a spot color design aesthetic by fin-de-siècle French poster designers. By “spot color,” I mean the commercial design practice exploited by Jules Chéret and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec of modern color assignations for communicative, rather than illusionist, purposes. An international “poster craze” followed the French example in Europe and America.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, “Reine de Joie par Victor Joze (The Queen of Joy by Victor Joze)” (1892), a bawdy flirtation takes place at a nightclub table, in a palette of pea green, yellow, red-orange, and black. Toulouse-Lautrec makes no attempt to blend the colors optically, to establish atmosphere. The picture is frank, flat, immediate: a brazen visual shorthand. Spot color suggested how color might work if it were freed from imitation (photo courtesy of the Art Institute of Chicago)

另一个发展作出了贡献,以新兴的宣传。在19世纪90年代,新一代的美国杂志出版商制定了尘封已久的“家庭住宅”,它发表的文学作品和历史题材的杂志的替代品。新品种接受当前的主题和追求流行的吸引力,关键的是通过降低价格。金博宝首页因为更便宜的问题都必须由广告收入承销,杂志,如Munsey’sand大都会广告新的消费产品制造商出售筏。广告迅速演变成一个新的视觉媒介。在这个过程中,杂志封面和整版广告,提供插画家和设计师创造文字,图像和信纸的一个新的商业科学的空间和金钱。与编辑,艺术总监和广告客户合作,他们磨练自己的技能,刺激,甚至植入,消费者对新产品的欲望。

Kenyon Cox, cover of an issue ofMcClure的杂志(1898年2月)的1898-99的美西战争催生了美国的第一个真正的现代说明的宣传,就像“杂志革命”转变期刊出版市场。该图像采用哥伦比亚,美国女性的化身,在一个红色Phyrgian帽,安装在洋基水手桂冠。考克斯产生令人难忘的工作画报宣传司二十年后,在1917至1918年(由作者为Hyperallergic照片)金博宝188

在19世纪后期,插画 - 往往受过正式培训 - 并没有严格的区分画家,他们的做法依然是有些流体。但作为艺术历史学家米歇尔·鲍嘉已知悉艺术ists, Advertising, and the Borders of Art, soon the stink of commercialism specifically associated with advertising work clung to the status of illustrators. Partly in response, in 1901 a core group led by Charles Dana Gibson founded a professional association with a fancy name: the Society of Illustrators — still in business today on East 63rd Street in New York City. They hung exhibitions of member artworks, amused themselves with elaborate stag parties, and sought to burnish the reputation of their new profession.

乔治·克雷尔接近吉布森在1917年的春天那时的艺术家曾长期持有协会主席。查尔斯·达纳·吉布森是各种各样的政治家,一个无可争议的明星艺术家,第一美国的“它”女孩的创造者 - 吉布森女孩,自然 - 一个性感的,但是精炼年轻女子的天下,紧身衣而充满活力,果断chinned和突破通过级联卷发。她阐明了美国的魅力和新女大十八变,从到1910年,两人商定共同的19世纪90年代,非正式在第一。该装置产生不令人满意的结果后,鱼篓要求吉布森担任画报宣传司的椅子在1917年11月。

查尔斯·达纳·吉布森,“弱势性别-II”(1903)与相关他的名字命名的“姑娘,”吉布森是选举权时代的性别战争的两手肯定修辞学家。在“性别大战”可能不是真正的武术,但相关的宣传是野蛮的。这里吉布森挥动夸张的武器,小型化“力不从心”的男性。他作为一个漫画家体验定位他在一个战争的努力(由美国国会图书馆照片)的服务来吸引“图案的宣传”。

The design theorist Hanno Ehses recognized that effective poster design relies on the tools of classical rhetoric and everyday figures of speech. In “Representing Macbeth: A Case Study in Visual Rhetoric” he used Shakespeare’s tragedy as a rhetorical case study to generate poster compositions. The Scottish play is rich with images tethered to moral questions: “damned spots” that won’t wash out. It’s not a big leap from麦克白to political propaganda, another rhetorical stage. The arguments to be made for or against the actions of governments and nation states involve comparisons, substitutions, and compressions of various types. X is like y (simile) and x = y (metaphor) show up a lot. So too do part-for-wholes and wholes-for-parts exchanges (synecdoche) and associative stand-ins (metonyms) like “the Pentagon” to convey the American military.

The most common figures of speech used in illustrated propaganda are human ones: in a word, the technique ofpersonification。我们愿意接受使用的字符表示对象,现象,或抽象的概念:幸运女神,杰克弗罗斯特,新的一年的宝宝是人格化的例子。(在迪斯尼的经典魔法师的学徒的动画扫帚同样被拟人化,无需任何语言来调解。)

Two established personifications of the United States were available to illustrators in 1917–18, and both were updated and pressed into service: Columbia, a youthful woman, representing liberty; and Uncle Sam, a vigorous, white-tufted, old man who exhorts his nephews to defend the country. One illustrator in particular milked both of these characters for poster concepts. James Montgomery Flagg cranked out “Wake Up, America!” within weeks of the U.S. declaration of hostilities.

詹姆斯·蒙哥马利·弗拉格,“醒醒吧,美国!文明要求每一个男人,女人和孩子”(1917年4月);海报制作的市长在纽约市,许多海报委托实体的一个委员会;乔迪和路易·阿特金家族收藏,D.B。多德现代图形的历史图书馆,华盛顿大学图书馆(由美国国会图书馆照片)

弗拉格是一个典型的人 - 约镇,致力于高寿命,谁是他的圈子里算演员和社会名流。他得到了女演员玛丽·亚瑟坐哥伦比亚。他提出了她打瞌睡的藤椅一个凹槽柱之前,珠光宝气与星条旗和一个Phyrgian帽冠(也见肯扬考克斯插图McClure的from 1898, above). Despite Flagg’s efforts, there’s something silly about “Wake Up, America!” Columbia comes off as a drowsy priestess at the local Roman temple, incongruously dolled up for a patriotic pajama party as an unseen monster advances. Dark clouds gather. The textual voice bellows at her: “Wake up!” Hortatory copy in all-caps lettering runs across the bottom: “Civilization calls every man, woman, and child!”

不仅弗拉格,而且哥伦比亚未能说服。虽然从哥伦布抽象推导,与她同名的现代outréstatus as a colonizing scoundrel was not a factor in the early 20th century. She just didn’t have enough to do. At root, Columbia wasbland, which explains why she had already been supplanted by Lady Liberty, thatFEMMEwith a torch and an agenda in New York harbor.

詹姆斯·蒙哥马利·弗拉格rebooted Uncle Sam far more memorably. He famously used himself for a model, giving the old character (dated to the war of 1812, updated by Thomas Nast in the 1860s) a freshly gruff mien for his first appearance on the cover ofLeslie’s Illustrated News。尖手指,严肃的表情和花花公子服装都在那里,在一个传说:“我想你了。”在画报宣传司较大规模的执行同图的第二个版本在今年晚些时候来了,以“为美国陆军”追加到他字母的需求。虽然弗拉格将在1917至1918年生产超过40海报,有许多特色的山姆大叔,没有人会胜过我想你了,销量超过四百万册两年。

詹姆斯·蒙哥马利·弗拉格,为张国荣的周刊报纸画报, (L): “I Want You”; and (R): “I Want You for U.S. Army” (February 1917) poster design for Department of Pictorial Publicity, 1917; I WANT YOU: Jodi and Louis Atkin Family Collection, D.B. Dowd Modern Graphic History Library, Washington University Libraries (both photos by the Library of Congress)

The Gibson Girl was supplanted by a variety of competing “it” girls. All were proto-flappers: slimmer, more animated, s-curve corsets discarded. The contenders included the “Brinkley Girl,” “Fisher Girl,” and “Christie Girl,” the work product of Nell Brinkley, Harrison Fisher, and Howard Chandler Christie, respectively. All contributed to the war effort. But Howard Chandler Christie secured the attentions of the United States Navy, for whom he produced nearly every recruiting poster during the war. Christie’s women exhort, coax, and event taunt men into volunteering for service. “Gee!! I wish I were a man,” dreams a woman in a sailor suit, “I’d join the Navy.” The typeset copy lowers the boom: “BE A MAN AND DO IT.”

Howard Chandler Christie, “Gee!! I wish I were a man—I’d join the Navy” (1917); Jodi and Louis Atkin Family Collection, D.B. Dowd Modern Graphic History Library, Washington University Libraries (photo by the Library of Congress).

消费经济的诞生和现代广告的出现标志着20世纪初。用于出售发酵粉,果冻,和化妆品的技能被应用到促进武装冲突。有时,这些议程交融,其结果可以不和谐。在1919年discomfiting为广告袜业Luxite,我们看到的事实后,战时宣传的另一面。性感海军招聘谁“wishe [d]她是个男人”具有重新拥抱天使般的女人味。如果盛大微妙的手势,她的注意力名义上致力于她敦促注册,在轮椅上康复的水手。他作为一个爱国的道具。她已经重生为时髦的照顾者以极大的腿。

Coles Phillps, “Luxite Hosiery” (1919), Coles Phillips was an American illustrator associated especially with advertising work and magazine covers featuring his trademark “fadeaway girl.” His clients included automobile companies, purveyors of flatware, hosiery makers, and others (photo by the author for Hyperallergic).

Finally, a kind of beastly personification was used to characterize the enemy. The “hun” was repeatedly depicted as insatiable fiend, never more vividly than in Harry Hopps’s “Destroy this mad brute” poster. A rampaging gorilla in a Kaiser helmet with matching mustache has come ashore, having ravaged the desolate city behind him. His right hand brandishes a bloody club labeled Kultur, while his left arm gathers a half-dressed, distraught blonde: the straw-woman, whose honor must be defended at all costs. The brute intriguingly anticipates King Kong, the monster primate to ravage midtown 15 years hence.

H.R. Hopps, “Destroy this mad brute” (1918), for the San Francisco Army Recruiting District; Jodi and Louis Atkin Family Collection, D.B. Dowd Modern Graphic History Library, Washington University Libraries (photo by the Library of Congress).

在第一次世界大战中美国宣传远远超出民进党委托海报。词曲作者,vaudevillians,小册子作者,电影制片人,散文家和演说家促成了功夫,除了插图画家和漫画家。处于最佳状态,这些年的图形输出也展示了从世纪之交的广告训练有素的美国艺术家的修辞和创意实力。讽刺的是,吉布森带领的插画使用的公共服务,以减轻负面联想,“商业化”,即使他们搅动的宣传无非是广告一个更大的客户端。

但是,当代的问题是什么?在唐纳德·特朗普政权的种族主义和仇外心理已经激起了人们在今天的创意产业的积极响应。插画家和漫画家已安装自己的宣传攻势。他们嘲笑总统,可以肯定的,但也主张对美国的愿景,一个不完整的项目,一种意识形态的玩意儿值得投资和维修。在这个11月大选尘埃落定后,这将是评论家和历史学家的工作,通过这段时间的工作,筛选,梳理出动机和评估生产我们的后一天画报宣传系。

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