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有很多话要说没有高尔基,关于亚美尼亚美国画家的直系亲属的特殊和洞察力的纪录片阿尔希尔·高尔基left behind, but it is the silences that speak the most. Created by Gorky’s granddaughter Cosima Spender, the film documents the absence of the giant of Modern Art, and the residue of his life and art on those who continue to live with his estate and legacy.

高尔基的故事是悲剧性的。作为亚美尼亚种族灭绝的幸存者,他的母亲死于饥饿,他逃到了羽翼未丰的第一个亚美尼亚共和国,然后在1920年被苏联接管。围绕高尔基的很多东西都是令人沮丧的不完整的,已经出现的历史有些不令人满意,因为他们总是漏掉一些东西。在这里,大部分故事都围绕着阿格尼斯·马格鲁德展开,高尔基用深情的亚美尼亚名字称呼他Mougouch.这对结婚了when she was 20 and he was probably 41.What attracted Gorky to the very young Magruder is anyone’s guess, but it seems clear that he wanted a break with his past.

电影里的人花了那么多时间去想象高尔基可能做了什么或想了什么,真是不可思议。有一次,他的女儿马罗·高尔基(Maro Gorky)说,他是在他们的谷仓自杀身亡的,因为他不想离房子太近,好像这是事实。高尔基是一个幽灵般的存在,漫游在他们的生活走廊。《没有高尔基》是这部电影的焦点,而马格鲁德是真正的中心人物,每个人都依赖她来生活,有时感觉像是一场悲恸和回忆的哑剧。马格鲁德并不是最热情的人物;她以一种非常华而不实的姿态出现在屏幕上,她独特的口音和奇怪的,近乎正式的举止。但她并不是一朵枯萎的百合花,即使她似乎忍受了很多情感虐待。她是家族中唯一一个对高尔基记忆犹新的人,值得注意的是,他们的关系持续了不到十年——这是高尔基一生中短暂但重要的一段时期。她说,她只是从表面上看他,并没有像他所希望的那样深入调查,这是相当奇怪的,考虑到他们在一起时的点点滴滴,刺穿了他努力维护的理想化版本。

Magruder留下了他们烦恼的高度,与超现实主义者Roberto Matta一起睡觉,她在她和丈夫和她丈夫一起找到的许多战斗中找到了安慰的朋友。One could only assume the impact such a betrayal would’ve had on a traumatized, macho traditionalist like Gorky, even if she dismisses the episode with an almost too-convenient-to-be-true recollection of Gorky chasing Matta around a park before they sat down on a bench together and talked things out. After Gorky died, Magruder traveled Europe with Matta, placing her children in a Swiss boarding school rather than allowing Gorky’s sister in Chicago to adopt them. “For a weekend, a long week, mummy sent us there to try out, to see whether we wouldn’t be happier as nice little Armenian chicks being brought up in Chicago,” Maro Gorky states with a tone that’s hard not to read as disparaging. But Gorky’s daughters didn’t find solace in the expensive school, and one admits they were treated as a “little bit Oriental.”

阿尔希尔·高尔基in没有高尔基

It’s incredible to me how much time the group spends avoiding the elephant in the room, namely the genocide. Even when they travel to Lake Van in what is now Turkey, where Gorky was born and raised, Matthew Spender (Gorky’s son-in-law, an author ofa Gorky biography而且电影制剂的父亲)以相当令人反感的方式总结了这些事件。当马罗问道时,“有多少人被杀了?”他回应,“在150万和200万之间,300万,任何东西之间,”仿佛没有充分记录。他后来是指事件是“亚美尼亚人定义为种族灭绝的经验以及土耳其人定义为流离失所。”这一点,面具会出现,我们看到家庭及其绝缘世界。任何实际研究历史的人都不会以这种方式表征,而电影制片人则决定包括这一点表明她对历史的奇怪了解。或者她可能会突出自己的家人特别采取。Spender已经在其他地方展示了这样的杂碳。当他在他的书中描述了高尔基和名剧威廉·萨罗安之间的关系时,他说他们“互相厌恶,因为非常亚美尼亚的原因”,这是一个奇怪的陈述,它对我们和疯狂的民族“的追踪戏剧西方文化作为解雇整个社区的一种方式。 What exactly were these mysterious “very Armenian” reasons?

Van湖之旅期间,家人不喜欢attempt to retrace Gorky’s route as a refugee, preferring to linger in the ethnically cleansed area where he grew up. It’s a little obnoxious to watch. It’s also surprising that they never ask any questions of the Turkish and Kurdish people they encounter. “Did you know my family lived here?” “Do you know what happened to them?” “Are there still Armenians in the area?” “Who destroyed the giant monastery in this old photograph we came to find?” All easy questions to ask and answer, as we have seen done in other documentaries that tackle the genocide. But we only get Spender’s half-researched guesses. Ultimately this story is about them, and their idea of Gorky and the world they think he inhabited.

Agnes Magruder in没有高尔基

还有一点很奇怪,那家人从不认为种族灭绝是高尔基最终自杀的一个因素。可悲的是,种族灭绝幸存者自杀并不罕见;许多家庭都有这样的故事:亲人们在经历了一件让拉斐尔·莱姆金(Raphael Lemkin)想到“种族灭绝”这个词的事件后,在与创伤搏斗后自杀阿曼·马诺基安,who landed in Hawaii around the same time Gorky moved to New York, became known as the “van Gogh of Hawaii” for his lush canvases of happy Indigenous people living their lives unhindered in paradise (it’s hard not to read his own personal history of being forced out of his homeland into the work). Manookian would go on to kill himself too in 1931. The檀香山广告商said, “No reason for the artist could be offered by his friends. He was said to have been despondent for several days prior to his taking poison.” Recent studies of大屠杀幸存者认为随着这些人年龄的增长,他们更容易自杀,这表明亚美尼亚人也可能有类似的情况,他们承受着犯罪者和亚美尼亚裔美国人甚至他们自己的政府否认的痛苦——尽管如此可能确实改变. 在你意识到对高尔基遗产的蔑视之情贯穿始终之前,这个家族从来没有出现过这种情况是令人困惑的。另一件令我困惑的事是,家里没有人费心学亚美尼亚语。如果像斯宾德曾经解释的那样,高尔基几乎每晚都是一个主要话题,那么他们为什么不花时间学习艺术家的私人信件所用的语言呢?

著名艺术家的家庭往往不是继承遗产的理想人选。有些人结果是贪婪的,有些人是报复性的和竞争性的。高尔基的家人似乎更受伤害的是他的缺席和沉默。在某些方面,这对我们这些种族灭绝后的亚美尼亚家庭,或任何遭受重大灾难蹂躏的家庭来说,听起来非常熟悉。最近,日本研究学者Harry Harootunian写了一本关于自己家庭沉默的回忆录,不言而喻的遗产.他写:

The decision to not share these memories and experiences with the children is still a mystery. It could have been the enormity of experiences, its virtual unbelievability, a negative fable from theTales of the Arabian Nights,解决了超过儿童能力的可信度以及他们可能能够掌握的任何能力的可信度。

那些沉默说出卷,他们在被迫忍受缺席的人的思想中缠身。在某种程度上,高尔基的女儿did成为“亚美尼亚小鸡”,生活在悲剧的阴影中过于巨大的理解,同时提出各种问题,知道答案可能总是超出他们的掌握。在亚美尼亚,我们有一句话,ցաւդցաւդ(萨维特达尼姆), which roughly means “Let me carry the burden of your pain.” It is said to express sympathy and empathy to those enduring a tough time, and it suggests that trauma is communal and can be shared, or at the very least that others can help lighten the load. It seems Gorky’s family has been carrying their burden on their own, for decades.

From没有高尔基

The first time I watched this film, I was livid at its omissions, and it took me a few months to watch it again. Through subsequent viewings, I’ve slowly come to care for the family in a way I didn’t expect. Their hurt and pain is obvious (and familiar and raw), and part of me hopes they wake up to what seems obvious to some of us. Living with a genocide survivor is tough, losing them is sometimes tougher, and those of us who have gone through it have many stories to share. Ultimately, it helps one understand that the pain may never go away, even though it lessens. What Cosima Spender has done is create an important film about some of those closest to her, sharing some important moments that offer the rest of us insight into a figure we otherwise only know through his art.

但这部电影的中心主题之一是高尔基的小说和谎言,这些小说和谎言的表现方式就好像高尔基就是这样,而没有探究其中的原因。高尔基之所以把俄罗斯列为自己的起源地,而不是土耳其或奥斯曼帝国,一个原因是当时美国对亚美尼亚人没有任何安全保障,更不用说对他们的歧视是很普遍的。他们被归为亚洲人,有被驱逐出境的危险,特别是如果他们一贫如洗的话,他经常这样做。作为我在别处讨论过,that fear was justified, since in 1921, 17 Armenians were killed in Istanbul after being deported from the US. And Gorky certainly不是唯一的亚美尼亚移民to falsely list Russia as their birthplace; if an Armenian was to be deported, it was certainly better to be sent to Russia rather than Turkey. Decades later the FBI visited Gorky’s camouflage class at Grand Central School to ask, “Where could Gorky, without authority, obtain information to teach such art?” The visit shook him. In his book, Spender dismisses it as a mere security check, but in context, it’s completely understandable why it might have rattled the artist.

From没有高尔基

两年前,我采访了Onnig Kardash,他提到高尔基总是唱歌Groong“(”起重机“)给亚美尼亚艺术家的同胞哈格·海牙,这两个共同对亚美尼亚音乐的爱情。在他的生命结束时,海牙会转向卡德什并要求他唱他这首歌。“呻吟”是亚美尼亚侨民的伟大歌曲之一;这呻吟是侨民本身的共同象征,因为它被广泛认为的起重机总是返回他们的家园。在各种传记中,有人提到高尔基的朋友会厌倦他的动画歌唱和舞蹈,亚美尼亚人的召唤基夫.值得询问为什么这个高尔基不在没有高尔基.He jettisoned that seminal marker of 20th-century Armenian American life to be part of the mainstream American art world, which looked down on ethnics and minorities who’ve not properly shed their pasts (and which continues to do so today, to a certain degree).

One day we might have a more holistic image of Arshile Gorky, one fashioned from a more complete story about him, one of a survivor who harnessed his talent to change the direction of Modern Art, who struggled with becoming American and lost as much as he gained, who tried to forget his past but ultimately couldn’t, who left behind a family that continues to struggle with his legacy, and who continues to inspire people today. One day we’ll learn about this human figure rather than the legend, and when that day comes, I hope his family can finally feel relief knowing that, while the pain is there and may never fully heal, it is not all-consuming. Eventually, descendants of genocide realize that feeling the pain can be a form of love, as you try to get closer to the unknowable and carry that burden until you pass it off to a new generation, who will decide their own role in this sprawling story. Gorky is too much to contain in any one thing, and that might be why he’s still relevant today.

没有高尔基is available to stream onNetflixVimeo On Demand.

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赫拉格·瓦尔塔尼安

赫拉格·瓦尔塔尼安是《过敏原》杂志的主编和联合创始人。你可以在@hragv跟踪他。金博宝188

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