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马里兰州团结旅投影“拆除白色至上”在里士满VA的一般李雕像(照片提供Richmond DSA的照片,由Backbone Campaign发布)通过Flickr发布)

这里表达的所有观点都是作者的观点,而且不代表史密森机构的官方职位或意见。

近130年前,南卡罗来纳州的黑人冒着生活在公共记忆的政治中进行干预。在1890年代,Mamie Garvin字段was a young Black girl in Charleston. Each day she passed the monument to pro-slavery advocateJohn C. Calhoun.那Mamie knew what only the historical record can tell us today — that the Black community of Charleston would regularly assault the statue, chipping away at it, scratching it, even shooting it to leave their mark. The destruction was so effective that within four years White authorities remade the monument, lifting the Calhoun statue 115 feet into the air.

这种被描述的黑色图标群体的历史提醒我们,种族主义纪念碑的破坏已经存在了一段时间和各种持续形式。当我探索其他地方一篇专员与UC Riverside教授Ayana Flewellen,与这个历史的严肃参与可以帮助我们从根本上重新考虑种族主义纪念碑的问题。通过黑色生活的镜头观看竞争的纪念碑,抗议开辟了博物馆解释的新可能性,并扰乱了关于白色至上的纪念碑的狭隘辩论应该被摧毁或保存。通过此镜头查看时,污损的纪念碑especially开辟博物馆解释的新可能性,可以重新定位现场,以考虑它选择忽略,沉默或允许保持埋在纪念碑内的历史。

鉴于最近的抗议活动,去除种族主义纪念碑的决定提高了关于与他们有关的事情的艰巨的实际问题。迄今为止,没有大规模的计划或综合模型,用于处理污损或删除纪念碑。然而,博物馆和遗产行业 - 两位基于保存的基本概念的职业 - 在很大程度上从这些领域外面的呼叫受到挑战,这表明博物馆陷入了损坏或陷入困境的纪念碑。关于这个问题的公众话语往往依靠复杂和未开发的假设,其并以最好地假设博物馆应该保护和解释这些物品,并且在最坏的情况下,假设它们是可能存储过去不需要的遗物的地方。

然而,对于博物馆专业人员纪念碑黛比ate has never been clear cut. We have to think about how a monument would read very differently in a general history museum, an art museum, or a Black history museum. From a collections management perspective we have to consider whether limited resources should go towards preserving a massive object (sometimes weighing tons) when funds might otherwise be used to preserve BIPOC histories, for example. From the curatorial lens, decisions like whether or not to display a plinth could be the difference between stripping the monument’s power away or reinforcing white supremacy in an elite museum space. While these are just some of the myriad reasons museums have not rushed to take in fallen monuments, the contemporary moment of racial reckoning has created an opening.

Today more museum professionals are considering what it could mean to exhibit defaced monuments. While intact monuments may defy interpretability in museums, defaced monuments provide a visible record of how people have responded to, interacted with, and contested racist historical narratives in public space. Monuments defaced through protest can be displayed in ways that contextualize the damage as part of a broader history of resistance to white supremacy by Black, Brown and Indigenous people in the United States. Contrary to assertions that defacement in this context is a move to “erase history,” these monuments show how communities today are engaged in a longstanding process of remaking history to be more truthful, inclusive, and accountable.

保护损坏的纪念碑可以将公众与目标毁灭的传统联系起来:并非总是记住的故事或尚未被研究 - 从古代到麦地Garvin领域到现在。这种保存也面临潜在的种族主义假设。例如,通过黑色图标传统的镜头观看毁坏的纪念碑,让我们远离普遍的观念,即黑色公共破坏是不协调的,反应的,或一种抢劫形式和自我伤害。相反,它成为一系列更长的历史干预措施,这些干预措施使我们的社会选择在第一个地方选择,研究,纪念和管家。

博物馆必须质疑保护的定义。博物馆可以为污损或违约纪念碑创建替代护理指南,这些准则不呼叫他们最初创造的保留?也许这正是黑色斑块的传统鼓励我们重新考虑的内容。在要求重视黑人的生活和历史时,必须挑战博物馆来重温护理,记忆,社区决策的政治影响以及破坏的生产作用。

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Tsione Wolde-Michael

Tsione Wolde-Michael是非洲裔美国人的社会正义历史的策展人,位于史密森尼国家历史博物馆。

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